Recipes E – O

I’m trying to limit this swarm of recipes to some I have actually used, and to others I am still assuring myself that I will someday try. Someday. It looks as if I only make desserts, but those are what we need real recipes for, not for everyday stews and staple entrees. I will add more recipes, and perhaps emphasize healthier options in time. For now, just reading these pages may clog our arteries, and contribute to our (just one or two) extra pounds. – LLF

** Recipes E through O **



Easiest Peanut Butter Fudge

Egg Custard

English Lemon Curd Pie


Firehouse Bread

Fluffy White Frosting II

Four-Ways Sauce

Friendship Bread

German Chocolate Cake

Gingersnaps, with notes

Graham Cracker Pudding

Grains, Rice and Legumes Cooking Times, Ratios

Granny Smith Apple Pie

Gravy Tips, Troubleshooting

Greek Cookies

Gumbo Sans Okra

Hershey Bar Chocolate Cake

Hershey’s Chocolate Mousse

Homemade Marshmallows

Homemade Salsa

Honey “Dippins” Muffins

Ice Cream, Sherbet, Sorbet Recipes

Insecticidal soap


Jeannette’s Fudge

Jiffy Chocolate Cake


Lemon-Cream Cheese Pound Cake

Lemon Delight Cake

Lemon Filling

Lemon-Pecan Bread

Lime-Tarragon Chicken

Mexican Cornbread

Mexican Cream Pudding

Natural Cleaner Recipes

Never-Fail Caramel Frosting

No-Bake Cookies

No-Ham Navy Bean Soup

Orange Marmalade

Orange Pound Cake

Orange-Cranberry Muffins



One of the very nicest things about life is the way we must regularly stop whatever it is we are doing and devote our attention to eating. ~Luciano Pavarotti



Easiest Peanut Butter Fudge


1/2 cup butter

2 – 1/4 cups brown sugar

1/2 cup milk

3/4 cup peanut butter

1 teaspoon vanilla

3 – 1/2 cups confectioners sugar

Melt butter in a medium saucepan over medium heat. Stir in brown sugar and milk; bring to a boil, then cook for 2 minutes, stirring frequently. Remove the pan from the heat and stir in vanilla and peanut butter; combine well. Place powdered sugar in a large mixing bowl, and pour the peanut butter mixture over it; beat until smooth. Pour fudge into a well-buttered 8-inch square pan, and cool thoroughly and chill for 1 hour before cutting.


–from, January 2017

Note: Yes, this is easy enough. And maybe if you sift the powdered sugar it even mixes well. However … I’m no longer sure I like peanut butter fudge enough to bother. – LLF



Custard: A detestable substance produced by a malevolent conspiracy of the hen, the cow, and the cook. –Ambrose Bierce



Egg Custard


2 eggs

1/4 cup granulated sugar

1 cup milk

pinch of salt

dash of vanilla extract

freshly-grated nutmeg


Preheat the oven to 325 degrees, and place the rack in the middle position. In a medium mixing bowl, beat the eggs well with a wire whisk; add milk, salt and vanilla and mix thoroughly. Pour the custard into small well-buttered baking cups, or a (well-buttered) 3 to 4 cup casserole dish. Grate your desired amount of nutmeg over the top. If possible, place baking dish or dishes into a larger pan with at least 1 inch of water in the bottom, to act as a water bath while baking. Bake the custard about 45 to 50 minutes, or until the top is just set. Allow to cool completely before serving. (this recipe may be doubled, but if prepared in a larger dish, the baking time will be longer.)


–from, February 2014

NOTE: my mom still likes custard, but it’s hard to justify running the oven for an hour for the little dab she will eat. So … I tried microwave custard. It’s not as smooth, and requires frequent stirring, using a good-sized pyrex bowl with a lid, and placing a dish of water in one corner. But so far, so good . – LLF, December 2017




English Lemon Curd Pie


2 large lemons, preferrably thick-skinned

8 ounces loaf sugar (“lump” sugar?)

4 large eggs

4 ounces (1/2 cup) unsalted or lightly-salted butter, cut in small cubes


Working over a heatproof bowl, rub a sugar lump vigorously over the peel of the lemons until the lump crumbles, then start with another; about 4 lumps will rub sufficient zest and oil from each lemon. Put all the sugar together in the bowl. Squeeze the lemons, and strain the juice into a second bowl; whisk the eggs very thoroughly with the strained juice. Set the bowl of sugar in or over a pan of hot? warm? water; when the sugar has dissolved, add the eggs, then the butter. Stir until all ingredients are amalgamated and the whole mixture looks rather like thick honey, with about the same consistency. Remove the bowl from the heat, and stir until the curd has cooled. Store in clean, sealed jars, for up to 3 months. Makes approximately 1 pound.

[Up to 2 ounces crumbled sponge cake or ground almonds may be added to this quantity of lemon curd, to make it more solid as a pie filling, see crust recipe below.]




Short Sweet Pie Crust


3 ounces (about 3/8 cup) granulated sugar

6 ounces (3/4 cup) cold butter, cut in bits

9 ounces (about 2 1/4 cups) all-purpose or pastry flour

1 whole egg, plus ? a little ice water to moisten the dough


In a large bowl, combine the flour and sugar. Cut in the butter with a pastry blender till it resembles very coarse meal. Beat the egg thoroughly, with a very small amount of ice water; gently add this to the dough and mix till it holds together, adding another teaspoon ice water if needed. Let the dough rest a bit, then roll it very gently, using as little flour as possible. This will make crusts for 2 7-inch pies.

Carefully arrange crust in baking pans, and prick the surface; cover with parchment paper and weight with raw beans or rice. Bake at 425 degrees F. for 20 minutes; reduce oven to 370 degrees F. and bake for 15 minutes more, or until well-browned. While crust is still hot, remove the weighted paper and fill with lemon curd (about 6 to 8 tablespoons for a 7-inch crust) and place back in the oven for 5 minutes, just enough to warm the filling.


–from Elizabeth David. An Omelette and a Glass of Wine, March 2017






apples – 1 pound = 3 medium = 3 cups sliced

bananas – 1 pound = 3 medium = 2 – 1/2 cups sliced

berries – 1 pint = 1 – 3/4 cups [illogical!]

bread – 1 slice = 1/3 cup crumbs = 3/4 cup cubes

butter – 1 stick = 4 ounces = 8 tablespoons = 1/2 cup

cheese (hard) – 4 ounces = 1 cup shredded

cocoa powder – 1 pound = 4 cups

cornmeal – 1 pound = 3 cups

cream, heavy or whipping – 1/2 pint = 1 cup = 2 cups whipped

flour, all-purpose – 1 pound = 4 cups sifted

flour, cake – 1 pound = 4 – 1/2 cups sifted

lemon – 1 medium = 3 tablespoons juice + 1 tablespoon grated peel

macaroni – 1 cup raw = 2 to 2 – 1/4 cups cooked. 1 pound raw = 8 cups cooked

noodles, dried – 1 cup raw = 1 – 3/4 cups cooked. 1/2 pound raw = 4 to 5 cups cooked

onion – 1 small = 1/4 cup chopped. 1 medium = 1/2 cup chopped. 1 large = 1 cup chopped

orange – 1 medium = 1/3 to 1/2 cup juice + 2 tablespoons grated peel

pecans – 1 cup shelled raw = 4 ounces = about 55 halves = 750 calories

potatoes, sweet – 1 pound = 3 medium = 2 – 1/2 to 3 cups sliced

potatoes, white – 1 pound = 3 medium = 2 – 1/3 to 2 – 1/2 cups sliced = 2 cups mashed

raisins – 1 pound = 3 cups

rice, white – 1 pound = 2 – 1/2 cups raw = 8 cups cooked

sugar, brown – 1 pound = 2 – 1/4 cups packed

sugar, granulated – 1 pound = 2 – 1/4 to 2 – 1/2 cups

sugar, powdered – 1 pound = 4 to 4 – 1/2 cups unsifted = 4 – 1/2 to 5 cups sifted

tomatos – 1 pound = 3 medium

yeast (active dry) – 1 package = 1/4 ounce = 2 – 1/4 teaspoons


Notes: these should be taken as rough guides, some of the amounts don’t sound likely, and some don’t sound helpful. Consult the separate listing Grain Cooking Times for more information. – LLF, May 2012


Firehouse Bread


2 packages (4 and 1/2 teaspoons) active dry yeast
1/2 cup lukewarm (105 degrees F.) water
3 tablespoons cooking oil
1 13-ounce can evaporated milk
1/2 cup chopped onion
1/2 cup snipped fresh parsley
3 tablespoons sugar
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon dill seed
1/4 teaspoon crumbled sage
3/4 cup yellow cornmeal
4 cups whole wheat flour


In a large bowl, proof the yeast in warm water till foamy, about 10 minutes. Add the remaining ingredients, except for the cornmeal and flour, and combine thoroughly. Stir in the cornmeal and 2 cups flour, beating for 2 minutes with an electric mixer to blend. Add the remaining flour 1 cup at a time, and mix by hand. Turn the dough out on a floured surface and knead for 3 to 5 minutes; it will be very sticky, but try not to add much more flour, as this bread tends to be dry *.
Place dough in a well-greased bowl, turning to coat it with oil; cover loosely and let it rise for 1 hour in a warm spot, or till double in bulk. Punch down the dough; divide it in two,, and place each half in a well-greased 2-pound coffee cans **. Let the dough rise, covered loosely, for 30 minutes more.
Bake in a preheated 350 degree F. oven for 45 minutes, or till it tests done. Cool in the pans for 10 minutes; turn out and cool completely on racks. Keep the bread well-covered, for several days, or wrap well and freeze.
* it might help to add an extra 1 tablespoon cooking oil, but I haven’t tried it
** or use standard bread pans — when did you last see a 2-pound coffee can anyway? — though this will alter the baking time


–from Marty Coleman/Vision Center, 1980


Fluffy White Frosting II


1 cup sugar

1/4 teaspoon cream of tartar

dash salt

1/3 cup water

2 egg whites

1 teaspoon vanilla extract

In a small saucepan, combine first 4 ingredients; cook and stir until bubbly and sugar is dissolved. In a large bowl, combine egg whites and vanilla; beat at low speed a few seconds. With mixer running, slowly add the hot sugar syrup to the egg whites. Beat mixture on high speed to stiff peaks, about 7 minutes. Cool frosting before using on cakes.


Caramel Variation –

As above except: substitute 1.25 cups brown sugar, and decrease the water to 1/4 cup.


Lemon Variation –

As above except: omit cream of tartar, use 1 tablespoon lemon juice as part of the 1/3 cup water, and replace vanilla with 1/4 teaspoon lemon extract.

–from Better Homes and Gardens New Cookbook


The U.S. palate now understands spicy. –Lynn Dornblaser



Four-Ways Sauce


3 pounds ground beef [ground chuck is good] *

3 tablespoons flour

2 quarts tomato juice *

3 tablespoons dried minced onion

2 teaspoons garlic, dried minced or powder

1 tablespoon chile powder

1 teaspoon paprika

1 teaspoon ground cumin

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon

1/2 teaspoon ground hot red pepper – original stresses this be level

1/4 teaspoon ground allspice

1/2 teaspoon thyme leaf

1/4 teaspoon marjoram

1/4 teaspoon oregano leaves

1/4 teaspoon rosemary leaves

5 large bay leaves

12 whole cloves

Brown half the meat and flour in a large kettle, and cook the rest in a large skillet; when done, place all in the kettle. Add tomato juice and first 9 seasonings. Place the remaining ingredients in a cheesecloth bag and add this to the kettle. Cook the sauce at a bare simmer, stirring occasionally, for at least 4 hours, 5-6 is recommended. Serve sauce over spaghetti, topped with grated cheese, chopped onions, and kidney beans if one insists. To be authentic Cincinnati chili, also have oyster crackers to accompany the dish.

–from Lyle Hiteman, c. 1965

* Over time, I’ve come to use 2 to 2 – 1/2 pounds beef, and a bit less tomato juice–whatever comes in a large can. I also use far more onion than specified, chopping 1 or 2 large onions to cook with the meat. I’m apt to add more garlic as well, and more of many seasonings. And I add 1 teaspoon basil, which is never called for in the original recipe. You can use ground cloves, and just pick out the bay leaf if you don’t want to mess with a cheesecloth bag. I’m not sure, but I probably also throw in some fennel seed, I’m such an iconoclast. -LLF, 2/07



Friendship Bread


Starter * –

3 – 1/2 cups bread flour

1 tablespoon granulated sugar

1 package active dry yeast (1/4 ounce, 2 – 1/4 teaspoons)

2 cups lukewarm water (99 to 110 degrees(

Combine dry ingredients in a 2 to 3 quart bowl; stir in lukewarm water until smooth. Allow starter to stand [loosely covered?] in a warm place for 2 days, then place the starter in a large ziplock bag, and follow the instructions given below.


Starter Feeding Instructions

On the first day – do nothing.

On days 2 through 4 – squeeze the bag for a minute or so each day.

On the 5th day – add 1 cup flour, 1 cup sugar, and 1 cup milk to the starter. Reclose the bag and knead it gently to help evenly distribute the additions. Place the starter in the refrigerator.

On days 6 through 9 – squeeze the bag each day.

On day 10 – Let the starter return to room temperature. In a large bowl, combine the starter with 1 cup flour, 1 cup sugar, and 1 cup milk; mix well with a wooden spoon. Using 3 large ziplock bags, place 1 cup of starter into each bag. Use your remaining starter in the bread recipe below, keeping it covered and chilled if you’re not baking on the same day.

Keep one bag of starter, and either refrigerate it or resume the feeding schedule. Pass along the other bags, presumably also giving copies of the bread recipe, and generous samples. **

* This is a LARGE sourdough-type starter, so unless you really have several friends committed to frequent baking, I’d consider making half this amount, but it might take a bit more yeast and/or sugar to work with a smaller quantity, such things are not always strictly linear, though I’m too ignorant to say why. – LLF, January 2013

** No one says so, but I think you could freeze bags of starter, just letting one thaw when you need it, then carrying on with the care and feeding. Yeast is tough stuff! – LLF




Friendship Bread


1 cup granulated sugar

1 tablespoon ground cinnamon

2 cups prepared Friendship Bread starter

1 cup cooking oil

1 cup applesauce

1 cup milk

6 eggs, beaten lightly

1 tablespoon vanilla

3/4 cup brown or white sugar

5 tablespoons cornstarch

2/3 cup powdered milk

4 cups all-purpose flour

1 tablespoon baking powder

1 teaspoon baking soda

1 to 1 – 1/2 teaspoons salt

Preheat the oven to 325 degrees F. Grease 2 large or 3 average-sized bread pans. Stir together 1 cup sugar with cinnamon and mix well. Sprinkle half the cinnamon sugar in the bottom of your pans, reserving the rest to sprinkle on top of the loaves before baking.

In a large bowl, add oil, applesauce, milk, beaten eggs and vanilla to the bread starter and mix well. In a separate bowl, stir together the remaining (dry) ingredients, then gradually add this to the starter mixture and whisk till smooth.

Divide dough between the pans, sprinkle loaves with reserved cinnamon sugar, and bake in the middle of the oven for about 60 minutes, when they should test done. Cool in the pans a few minutes, then loosen edges and turn loaves out on racks to cool thoroughly. The bread freezes well, wrapped in plastic and aluminum foil.

–from Mary L. Frederick, circa 1995

Note: And who knows where my mom got the recipe? As I received this, it called for a package of instant vanilla pudding, but I never buy that, so I included brown sugar, cornstarch and powdered milk instead. Given the price of powdered milk, a box of pudding may be cheaper, so suit yourself. People ate it either way, though I don’t recall making it for long. I liked it well enough, but now I’m too lazy for all that work! Maybe I’ll try the “easy” version below. Maybe. Someday. – LLF, January 2018




Friendship Bread II


[If you like the flavor of friendship bread, but don’t like having to deal with the starter, this is the recipe for you… – Northern Gal]

1 cup vegetable oil

1 – 1/2 cups granulated sugar

3 large eggs

1 teaspoon vanilla

2 – 1/2 cups all-purpose flour

1 box (3 – 1/2 ounce) instant pudding, any flavor *

2 tablespoons cinnamon

1/2 teaspoon salt

1/2 teaspoon baking soda

1 – 1/2 teaspoons baking powder

1 – 1/4 cups milk

To coat pans, and to sprinkle on top –

1/2 to 1 cup granulated sugar, combined with at least 1 teaspoon cinnamon

Preheat the oven to 325 degrees f. Grease 2 large bread pans, and sprinkle cinnamon sugar in the bottom of each, reserving enough sugar to also sprinkle on top of the loaves before baking.

Combine oil, sugar, eggs and vanilla in a large bowl and mix well. In another bowl, stir together the flour, pudding mix, cinnamon, salt, soda, and baking powder; add this to the oil-sugar mixture alternately with the milk, and beat till smooth.

Pour the batter into the pans, and sprinkle tops with the reserved cinnamon sugar. Bake for 1 hour, or till tops are set and test done. Makes 2 loaves, serving 24.

–from, January 2017

* Any flavor of pudding mix? With 2 tablespoons of cinnamon? That could get weird if you go much beyond vanilla, I should think. – LLF



German Chocolate Cake


1 4-ounce bar sweet german chocolate, broken in small pieces

1/2 cup boiling water

1 cup butter, softened

2 cups granulated sugar

4 egg yolks

1 teaspoon vanilla

2 – 1/2 cups sifted cake flour

1/2 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon baking soda

1 cup buttermilk

4 egg whites, stiffly beaten

Melt the chocolate in boiling water and set aside to cool. Cream butter and sugar until light and fluffy; add egg yolks singly, beating well after each. Add the cooled chocolate and vanilla; mix well.

Sift the dry ingredients together, then add to the creamed mixture alternately with the buttermilk. Beat until quite smooth, then fold in the egg whites and combine well. Pour batter into 3 deep 8- or 9-inch round pans, which have been lined with buttered and floured waxed paper. Bake layers 30-40 minutes at 350 degrees, till they test done.

Remove cake to cool thoroughly on racks. When cooled, frost the tops only of each layer with Coconut-Pecan Frosting [see recipe given separately], then stack the layers together.

–from recipe on Baker’s Sweet German Chocolate wrapper, also found in a Craig Claiborne dessert cookbook. [my mother has been making this for 50 years!]





2 cups packed brown sugar

1 – 1/2 cups shortening, softened *

1/2 cup molasses **

2 eggs, beaten lightly

1/2 to 1 teaspoon salt

4 teaspoons baking soda

4 to 6 teaspoons ground ginger

4 to 6 teaspoons ground cinnamon

2 to 3 teaspoons ground cloves

4 – 1/2 to 5 cups sifted all-purpose flour

granulated sugar for rolling, about 1 cup, but it varies

In a large mixing bowl, cream together the shortening and brown sugar; add molasses and combine well. Add eggs and beat to blend well. Sift the dry ingredients together if desired, and add this to the creamed mixture, 1 cup at a time, mixing thoroughly after each addition. (I’ve never tried starting this job with a mixer, but you’d need to finish mixing by hand anyway.) The dough will get very hard to stir for the last cup of flour or so, so recruit another arm or two if you can. 4 – 1/2 cups flour is nominal, but I usually add more, aiming for a soft but not too sticky dough consistency. Cover and chill the dough at least an hour.

Preheat your oven to 350 degrees, or just a bit higher. Roll the dough between your palms to about 1 inch to 1 – 1/4-inch diameter balls. Roll the balls in sugar till well-coated, and place them 1 inch apart on well-greased cookie sheets, flattening them slightly. I’m not really sure how long to bake these–in the upper third of the oven–but it’s probably at least 8 minutes, turning the trays once. Watch for the cookies to puff up noticeably, then subside again; they should be done at that point, unless you like them quite hard.

Allow cookies to cool on the trays about 1 minute or so before removing them to racks to cool completely.

–LLF, adapted from “Better Homes and Gardens Cookies and Candies “, 1960’s edition

Notes: The yield depends on exactly how large you make each cookie, of course, but I tend to get between 4 and 5 dozen. Feel free to decrease the amounts of spices–I use double what I’ve seen in most recipes because that’s what I like — but I would advise keeping the relative proportions the same. For example, if you only use 3 teaspoons ginger, use a like amount of cinnamon, and 1 – 1/2 teaspoons clove.

* I use butter or margarine for these, I’ve never tried Crisco, though it should work. Using all butter is fine, and that may help the cookies keep a bit better (though they usually tend to disappear pretty quickly, somehow). Of course butter’s expensive these days, and the spices make this a costly recipe anyway. I’ve found places to buy spices by the pound now, which helps cut the expense quite a bit. All margarine works fine, though I don’t recommend using the soft tub kinds. They would probably be all right, but you’d have to play around with the amount of flour to compensate for the additional liquid. I most often use 1 stick of butter and 2 sticks margarine when I make these.

** I’ve used everything but maple syrup in this recipe at one time or another, including sorgham molasses when someone gave me a big tin of it. (What else can you do with that awful stuff, anyway?) And I haven’t noticed that it makes much difference what you use, really. Some molasses is thicker or thinner than others; once you get used to how the dough should feel, you will make allowances with the amount of flour you add. I’ve even seen directions for substituting brown sugar, water and a few drops of vinegar if you don’t have molasses on hand, but I can’t recall trying it, and I don’t remember the proportions now. No doubt, one can Google it if needed. Mostly I just get store-brand molasses, and people still eat the cookies. Frankly, using reasonably fresh, flavorful spices is the only remotely critical thing about this recipe, and when I’ve gotten cloves that weren’t the best, or if the ginger I had was a little old, I’ve even fudged on that, combining some “new” spices with some of the dubious items, and the cookies still came out all right. – LLF, December 2011



Graham Cracker Pudding


Serve warm with lemon sauce or whipped cream. Substitute chopped dates for the raisins, if you like.” Original recipe yield: 6 servings.

1/4 cup shortening

1/3 cup white sugar

1 teaspoon vanilla extract

1 egg yolk

1/2 cup raisins

1/4 cup chopped walnuts (try 1/2 to 3/4 cup crushed pineapple instead of nuts/raisins?)

2 cups graham cracker crumbs

1 teaspoon baking powder

1/4 teaspoon salt

2/3 cup milk

1 egg white

Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Grease six, 6 ounce, ovenproof custard cups.

  1. Cream together shortening, sugar and vanilla. Beat in egg yolk. Stir in raisins and nuts. In a separate bowl, combine graham cracker crumbs, baking powder and salt. Add to batter alternately with milk, stirring until smooth. Whip egg white until stiff. Fold into batter. Pour into prepared custard cups.
  2. Bake in preheated oven 25 to 30 minutes, until set.
  3. Prep Time: = 15 Minutes Cook Time: = 30 Minutes
  4. Ready In: = 45 Minutes
  5. –from circa 2006

[After all this, I learned that what Chuck wanted was far simpler, just graham crackers, canned fruit and whipped cream. Except that didn’t quite suit him, either. Oh well. LLF, February 2011]


I like Rice. Rice is great if you’re hungry and want 2000 of something. –Mitch Hedberg



Grains, Rice, & Legumes – Cooking times, Ratios

[see below for pressure cooker notes, times]

Place desired amount of grain in heavy saucepan with the appropriate volume of cold water, unless noted otherwise –or just slightly more water if the pan does not have an airtight lid. Bring the pan to a solid boil, partly covered; stir the grain, cover pan and reduce to low heat; cook to al dente/absorbing liquid. Some grains will need frequent stirring, and may require extra water, I find. Key: grain type . grain . water . minutes to cook on stove

barley – 1 cup . 3 cups . 30-40 minutes

brown rice – 1 cup . 2 – 1/2 cups . 35-40 minutes

bulgar * – 1 cup . 2 cups . soak 1 hour if medium

couscous (semolina pasta) ** – 1 cup . 1 – 1/4 cups . soak 5 minutes

grits (medium) *** – 1 cup . 4 cups . 5-8 minutes

kasha – 1 cup . 2 cups . 15-18 minutes

millet – 1 cup . 2 cups . 20 minutes

oatmeal **** – 1 cup . 3 cups . 2-10 minutes

quino – 1 cup . 2 cups . 10-15 minutes

white rice – 1 cup . 2 cups . 8-10 minutes

wild rice – 1 cup . 3 cups . 50-60 minutes

* bulgar is precooked, just soak in hot water, then drain before using

**boil water, add couscous and stir; cover pan and let steam/soak 5 minutes

***stir grits into boiling water, then cover pan; stir occasionally until thick. to microwave – in 2-cup bowl combine 3/4 cup water, 3 tablespoons grits, dash salt; microwave on high 3-4 minutes, until thick

****oatmeal is stirred into boiling water, then stirred constantly, with pan uncovered; cooking time varies with fineness of cut

–from now-forgotten cookbooks, websites, food labels




Pressure Cooking guidelines for grains and legumes

  • for beans – – always add 1 tablespoon cooking oil to kettle, 2 tablespoons for lima beans or soybeans
  • do not use more than 2 cups dry beans in a 4-quart cooker, 3 cups in a 6-quart cooker, 4 cups in an 8-quart cooker
  • allow pressure to release on its own unless noted otherwise
  • if pre-soaked, all cooking times will be shorter
  • for grains- do not fill cooker more than half full
  • in general, use no more than 1 – 1/2 cups dry grain in a 4-quart cooker, 3 cups in a 6-quart, 4 cups in an 8-quart
  • rinse grains before cooking
  • add 1 tablespoon oil for each cup or so of grain
  • to prevent sticking and scorching, cook grains in plenty of water, then drain well – the cooking liquid may be saved for soups
  • quick-release pressure at the end of stated grain cook times


key: food type . dry ingredients . cooking liquid . time under pressure . wait time before quick-release . yield

adzuki beans – 1 cup . 2 cups+ . 16-21 minutes . n.a. = 2 cups

barley – 1 cup . 4 cups . 18 minutes . release = 2 cups

black beans – 1 cup . 2 cups+ . 22-25 minutes . n.a. = 2 cups

black-eyed peas – 1 cup . 2 – 1/2 cups . 6-8 minutes . n.a. = 2 – 1/4 cups

brown rice – 1 cup . 4 cups . 15 minutes . release = 2 cups

cantolini beans – 1 cup . 2 cups + . 28-32 minutes . n.a. = 2 cups

chickpeas – 1 cup . 2 – 1/2 cups+ . 32-35 minutes . n.a. = 2 – 1/2 cups

cranberry beans – 1 cup . 2 – 1/2 cups . 28-34 minutes . n.a. = 2 – 1/4 cups

flaggiolette – 1 cup . 2 cups+ . 28-34 minutes . n.a. = 2 cups

great northern beans – 1 cup . 2 – 1/2 cups . 25-30 minutes . n.a. = 2 – 1/4 cups

kidney beans – 1 cup . 2 cups+ . 25-30 minutes . n.a. =2 cups

lentils (brown or green) – 1 cup . 2 cups+ . 1-5 minutes . 8 minutes = 2 cups

lentils (red) – 1 cup . 2 cups+ . 5 minutes . n.a. = 2 cups

lima beans (baby) – 1 cup . 2 – 1/2 cups+ . 13-15 minutes . n.a. = 2 – 1/2 cups

lima beans (large) – 1 cup . 2 – 1/2 cups+ . 9-10 minutes . n.a. = 2 – 1/2 cups

navy beans – 1 cup . 2 cups+ . 22-25 minutes . n.a. = 2 cups

pinto beans – 1 cup . 2 – 1/2 cups . 19-22 minutes . n.a. = 2 – 1/4 cups

red beans (small) – 1 cup . 2 cups+ . 26-30 minutes . n.a. = 2 cups

romano beans – 1 cup . 2 cups+ . 25-30 minutes . n.a. = 2 cups

rye berries – 1 cup . 4 cups . 25 minutes . release = 2 cups

soybeans (beige) – 1 cup . 2 – 1/2 cups . 28-35 minutes . n.a. = 2 – 1/4 cups

soybeans (black) – 1 cup . 2 – 1/2 cups+ . 32-37 minutes . n.a. =2 – 1/2 cups

split peas – 1 cup . 2 cups+ . 10-12 minutes . n.a. = 2 cups

wheat berries – 1 cup . 4 cups . 35 minutes . release = 2 cups

white rice – 1 cup . 1 – 1/2 cups . 3 minutes . 7 minutes = 3 cups

wild rice – 1 cup . 4 cups . 25 minutes . release = 2 cups

–from Lorna Sass. Pressure Perfect: two-hour taste in twenty minutes Using Your Pressure Cooker, August 2017



Granny Smith Apple Pie


double recipe Basic Pie Dough (see separate recipe, listed within Pastry Doughs) — for 2 crusts

14 – 1/2 tablespoons sugar

3 tablespoons flour

3/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon

1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg

1/4 teaspoon ground ginger

1/4 teaspoon salt

3/4 teaspoon grated fresh lemon zest

2 – 1/2 lb. (about 6) Granny Smith apples

1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice

3 tablespoons cold unsalted butter, cut in bits

1 tablespoon half-and-half or milk

1 to 2 tablespoons sugar

On a lightly-floured surface, roll out pie dough for the bottom crust; fit this carefully into a deep-dish 9-inch pie pan, leaving at least 1/2 inch overhang of dough. Chill the pan and crust while you roll out the second crust and prepare the filling.

In a large bowl, mix the dry ingredients well. Peel, quarter, core and thinly slice the apples. Add them to the sugar mixture, tossing to coat them well. Mound the apples in the pie shell; sprinkle them with lemon juice, and dot with butter. Drape the top crust over the apples, seal the crust and crimp the edges. Make slits in the crust for steam vents, and brush the top with cream, then sprinkle with 1 to 2 tablespoons sugar.

Bake in the lower third of the oven 15 minutes at 425 degrees; reduce heat to 375 degrees and bake 40 to 45 minutes more, till crust is golden and the filling is bubbly. Cool on rack.

–from Gourmet January 1991, “25 Favorite Desserts”



Gravy Tips, Troubleshooting


  • To thicken gravy: If you’ve already made the gravy, and find that it is still too thin, do not add more dried flour to the gravy or else lumps will form. Rather, use one of the following suggestions –
  • – Whisk flour and broth or water in a small bowl to blend, then add this slurry to the gravy. Continue to simmer the gravy until it is just thick enough to coat a spoon.
  • Mix equal amounts of flour and room temperature butter in a small bowl to form a paste. Whisk this paste into the gravy, and simmer until the gravy thickens.
  • To avoid lumpy gravy –
  • – If adding warm broth, add it gradually.
  • If adding boiling broth, add it all at once.
  • Always whisk constantly when adding the broth.
  • To fix lumpy gravy –
  • – Transfer the lumpy gravy to a blender and blend until it is smooth, adding more turkey stock or chicken broth to thin, if necessary. To prevent burns, it is best to puree the hot gravy in small batches, keeping the lid down tight with a kitchen towel. Add chopped fresh thyme, sage, rosemary or tarragon to the blender to further flavor the gravy, if desired.
  • –from November 2005



Greek Cookies


1 cup butter, softened

1 egg yolk 1/3 c. powdered sugar 1 T. vanilla 2 c. flour dash salt 1 tsp. ground cloves, or enough whole ones to decorate cookies about 3/4 c. sifted powdered sugar for rolling baked cookies Cream the butter; add egg yolk and sugar, and beat smooth. Stir in the vanilla, then beat in the flour and salt, and ground cloves if used. Chill the dough thoroughly. Preheat oven to 325 degrees. Roll dough into 1-inch balls, and place these 1 inch apart on ungreased baking sheets. If using whole cloves, push one into the center of each cookie now. Bake 15 minutes, then remove to cool slightly. While cookies are still a bit warm, roll them carefully in powdered sugar to coat; finish cooling on racks. –from Better Homes and Gardens Cookies and Candies cookbook


Gumbo, sans Okra* 2 to 3 tablespoons cooking oil 1 large onion, sliced 2 stalks celery, sliced 2 medium carrots, halved and sliced about 2/3 cup diced green pepper about 1/2 cup red bell pepper, diced 4 to 6 cups chicken broth 2 to 3 cloves garlic, minced 2 cups diced peeled tomatoes, 1 14-oz. can 3/4 to 1 cup browned flour** 2 to 3 teaspoons dried parsley 1 teaspoon dried celery 1 teaspoon thyme 1 teaspoon basil 1 to 2 teaspoons fennel seed, ground? 1/2 teaspoon rosemary, crumbled 1 to 2 bay leaves 1/2 teaspoon cayenne, to taste 1/4 teaspoon black pepper pinch allspice 1 small onion, diced 1 small clove garlic, minced fine 1/2 to 1 teaspoon file powder 1/2 teaspoon marjoram 1/2 teaspoon fine basil 1 to 2 teaspoons worcestershire sauce salt, pepper, cajun seasoning to taste*** 1 pound cooked chicken or turkey, chopped 1/2 pound polish sausage or andouil, in bites 1/3? pound cooked shrimp**** In large kettle, saute onion, celery, carrots and peppers in oil to soften/caramelize a bit. Add next group of ingredients: simmer, stirring often, about 1 hour. Add remaining ingredients, and adjust seasoning to taste; bring to simmer again and cook 10-15 min. longer, still stirring frequently. Adjust seasonings final time, stir in shrimp long enough to be heated through, and serve stew over rice. * but naturally, 1 c. okra may be included if you like, or if you’re a purist; if fresh, brown it with the other raw vegetables, if frozen, add in time to cook thoroughly? however long that is ** to brown flour, spread 2-3 c. flour in large shallow baking pan and bake about 1 hour at 325 degrees, stirring occasionally to break up clumps. cool thoroughly and store tightly covered–freeze unused portion for another use, as it goes rancid very quickly even in the refrigerator. This is nice to use in making brown gravy, also as a roux-substitute in red beans. the traditional alternative, if you prefer, is to use a brown roux of 1/2 cup flour and 1/2 cup oil cooked together in a heavy pan, stirring constantly, until dark/mahogany colored but not burned. to me, this is laborious, and there is already enough fat in the stew without it. *** or you can use cayenne if desired–or add pinch of chipotle powder. you could also use hot sauce, just watch for more acidity from this source than you may want. **** add uncooked shrimp earlier, fully cooked shrimp just to heat through –LLF, February 2005


Hershey Bar Chocolate Cake

2 – 1/2 cups flour

1/2 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon baking soda

1/2 cup butter, softened

2 cups sugar

4 eggs

2 teaspoons vanilla

2/3 cup hershey’s syrup

7 small Hershey’s milk chocolate bars, about 11 oz., melted and cooled

1 cup buttermilk

Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Grease and flour either 2 9 X 5-inch loaf pans or one 9-inch tube pan. Sift together the dry ingredients in a medium bowl and set aside.

In a large bowl with an electric mixer, cream together butter, sugar, eggs and vanilla. Add syrup and cooled chocolate and blend completely. Add the flour mixture gradually, alternately with the buttermilk, and combine well. Pour batter into prepared pans.

Bake loaf pans 55 minutes or till they test done. In tube pan, bake 45 to 60 minutes or till it tests done. Cover pans with foil until completely cool. [I have no memory of this step from the old recipe, but suspect this uses less fat than the vintage recipe, so conserving moisture makes sense. – LLF] Frost cooled cake, or dust with powdered sugar.

–from “Hershey Bar Cake Recipe”, the closest I’ve found to a long-lost newspaper recipe I had circa 1971 – LLF


Top of Form 1


Hershey’s ® Chocolate Mousse Provided by: 3 to 4 teaspoons unflavored gelatin* 4 tablespoons cold water 8 tablespoons boiling water 1/4 to 1/2 tsp. instant coffee powder, optional …. 2 cups white sugar ^ 1 cup HERSHEY®’S Cocoa Powder healthy pinch salt 4 cups heavy cream, chilled 1 to 2 teaspoons vanilla extract In a small cup, sprinkle gelatin over cold water; let stand 1 minute to soften. Add boiling water; stir until gelatin is completely dissolved and mixture is clear. If adding coffee powder, stir it in at this point. Cool slightly. Stir together sugar, cocoa and salt in 2-quart bowl; chill, with mixer beaters, in the freezer at least 10 minutes. Add whipping cream and vanilla. Beat on medium speed of electric mixer, scraping bottom of bowl occasionally, until mixture is stiff.** Pour in gelatin mixture; beat until well blended. Spoon into serving dishes. Refrigerate about 30 minutes before serving. Garnish as desired. Cover and refrigerate leftover desserts. Makes 6-8 realistically-sized servings. [I’m tempted to make some changes already: try 2/3 to 3/4 c. sugar, 1/3? c. cocoa, and add some Hershey bars, chopped?, to the cream, to leave some little flecks of chocolate to melt on the tongue…yum!] * Use the lesser amount of gelatin if using the strong Bulk Foods gel. ** I didn’t find that this got really stiff while beating, but it sets up quite firmly once chilled–of course, I may need to decrease the gelatin used a bit, 07/11/06.

^ This now seems too sweet; cut back to 1- 3/4 cups sugar. – LLF 6/2012 And think I’ll cut boiling water back to 4 tablespoons, and try cold milk rather than water. – LLF 2/2013

Amount Per Serving – 1/2 c. size [get real, folks!] Calories: 327 Total Fat: 22.5g Cholesterol: 82mg Sodium: 25mg Total Carbs: 29.5g Dietary Fiber: 1.4g Protein: 3g +++++++++++++++

Top of Form 1


Homemade Marshmallows

1 – 1/2 tablespoons unflavored gelatin [= 3 envelopes] 1/2 cup cold water 1 – 1/2 cups sugar 1 cup light corn syrup 1/2 cup water 1/4 teaspoon kosher salt 1 tablespoon vanilla extract

well-sifted powdered sugar, for dusting

Combine the gelatin and 1/2 cup cold water in bowl of an electric mixer, and let sit while syrup cooks. Meanwhile, combine sugar, corn syrup, water and salt in a small saucepan; stir over medium heat until the sugar dissolves. Raise the heat to high, and cook until the syrup reaches 240 degrees on a candy thermometer: remove from the heat.

With the mixer on low speed, slowly pour the sugar syrup into the dissolved gelatin. Put the mixer on high, and whip until the mixture is very thick, about 15 minutes. Add vanilla, and mix thoroughly. Generously dust a 9 by 12-inch non-metal baking pan with powdered sugar. Pour the marshmallow mixture into the pan, smooth the top, and dust with more powdered sugar. Let this stand uncovered overnight, until it dries out.

Turn the marshmallows out on a board, and cut them in squares, dusting cut sides with more powdered sugar. –from Barefoot Contessa Family Style, August 2010

Toasted Coconut Variation 1 7 oz. package sweetened flake coconut, toasted 1 recipe Homemade Marshmallow batter, above sifted powdered sugar Sprinkle half the toasted coconut in the bottom of a 9 by 12-inch non-metal cake pan. Pour in marshmallow batter and smooth the top. Sprinkle remaining coconut over the top, and allow to dry uncovered overnight. Turn marshmallows out onto a board and cut into squares, dusting cut sides carefully with powdered sugar.

Marshmallows can also be dipped into melted chocolate, or the powdered sugar may be mixed with cinnamon if desired.


It’s difficult to think anything but pleasant thoughts while eating a home-grown tomato. –Lewis Grizzard



Homemade Salsa

4 cups ripe tomatoes, peeled, cored and chopped

5 jalapeno peppers, cored, seeded and chopped

2 medium yellow onions, chopped

1/2 of a green bell pepper, chopped

1 cup canned tomato sauce

1 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon minced garlic, about 1 medium clove

2 tablespoons chopped fresh cilantro leaves

1 – 1/2 tablespoons red wine vinegar

Salsa Jalapena (La Vitoria brand) to taste

Combine all ingredients and mix well. Cover and keep chilled for several days.

–from a forgotten cookbook, circa 1985

Notes: I add oregano to this recipe, sometimes a pinch of toasted cumin seed, and a little basil, fresh or dried, and skip the last ingredient. Maybe that’s why my salsa never quite suits me, though. – LLF


When I add a spoon of honey to my tea, I give thanks to a dozen bees for the work of their whole lives. When my finger sweeps the final drop of sweetness from the jar, I know we’ve enjoyed the nectar from over a million flowers. This is what honey is: the souls of flowers, a food to please the gods. Honeyeaters know that to have a joyful heart one must live life like the bees, sipping the sweet nectar from each moment as it blooms. And Life, like the world of honey, has its enchantments and stings…. ~Ingrid Goff-Maidoff “The Honey Sutras”


Honey “Dippins” Muffins


2 large egg yolks

1 cup milk

1 cup all-purpose flour

1/2 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon freshly-grated nutmeg

2 large egg whites, at room temperature

pinch of cream of tartar

1/2 cup honey

In a medium bowl, beat the egg yolks until they appear to lighten in color; add milk, flour, salt and nutmeg and blend well. * In a small bowl with an electric mixer, beat the egg whites with the cream of tartar and a tiny pinch of salt until they hold stiff peaks, then fold them gently into the flour mixture.

Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F. Butter a 12-cup muffin tin very well, and carefully spoon 1 teaspoon honey into each cavity. Fill the muffin ‘cups’ half-full of batter, and bake in the middle of the oven for 25 to 30 minutes, or till a cake tester comes out clean. Immediately remove the muffins from the tin, and spoon 1 teaspoon of the remaining honey over each one. Serve warm with lots of butter.

–from Gourmet, circa September 1982

* I never made these, but I’d strongly suggest using a non-stick muffin pan. And I’d think you’d need some shortening in this batter – maybe I missed it in copying the recipe? Try 1/4 cup oil and see what happens. Obviously, the idea is to produce a light texture, but … I’d be concerned that you might need a hammer and chisel to get the muffins out of the pan. – LLF


Eighteen luscious, scrumptious flavors:

Chocolate, lime, and cherry

Coffee. Pumpkin. Fudge banana, caramel cream, and boysonberry.

Rocky road, toasted almond, butterscotch, vanilla dip.

Butter brickle, apple ripple, coconut, and mocha chip.

Brandied peach, and lemon custard …

Each scoop lovely … smooth … and round.

Tallest ice cream cone in town —

Lying there … on the ground. –Shel Silverstein



Ice Cream, Sherbet, Sorbet Recipes including: Black Raspberry-Lemon Ice

Blueberry Sherbet Very Chocolate Ice Cream Cinnamon Ice Cream Cinnamon Ice Cream II Five Ingredient Ice Cream Granny’s Ice Cream Tart Lemon Sorbet Lime Sherbet Creamy Lime Sherbet Grandma’s Orange Milk Sherbet [with pineapple] Peach Ice Cream Peppermint Ice Cream Sherbets Hambleton Hall Super Strawberry Sherbet Vanilla Ice Cream III * Vanilla Ice Cream V Vanilla Ice Cream VIII Black Raspberry-Lemon Ice

3 cups ripe black raspberries, picked through

1/4 cup strained fresh lemon juice (about 2 to 3 lemons)

1 – 1/2 teaspoons grated lemon zest

2 teaspoons unflavored gelatin

1 – 1/2 cups sugar

3 cups water

In a processor or blender, puree the berries, lemon juice and zest; strain puree through a fine sieve into a bowl. Sprinkle gelatin over the berries and let it soften for 15 minutes. In a medium saucepan, combine the sugar and water and bring to a boil, stirring until the sugar dissolves; simmer syrup for 5 minutes, then remove it from the heat. Add the berry mixture, and stir until the gelatin is dissolved. Let berries cool to room temperature, then refrigerate for 1 hour, until cold.

Place berries into 2 ice cube trays, or a shallow 9-inch cake pan or two. Freeze berry mix 3 to 4 hours, until it’s firm but not frozen hard. With a mixer or processor, beat berries till light and smooth, but still partially frozen. Return to trays and freeze 1 to 2 hours more, till well-frozen. Makes about 1 – 1/2 quarts.

–from Gourmet, June 1983 “Black Raspberry Memories”

Note: I’d have to cut this down a bit, but I may try this in my little freezer sometime, and use an immersion blender for pureeing. – LLF, May 2012

Blueberry Sherbet SUBMITTED BY: Judy Rush “‘I like to garnish this refreshing dessert with whipped cream,’ recommends Judith Rush of Newport, Rhode Island. ‘It can also be made with raspberries or strawberries,’ she adds.” Original recipe yield: 4 servings PREP TIME 10 Min READY IN 10 Min SERVINGS 4 INGREDIENTS 1 cup sour cream 3/4 cup sugar 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract 3 cups fresh or frozen blueberries, thawed DIRECTIONS 1. In a blender or food processor, combine all ingredients; cover and process until smooth. Press through a sieve; discard the blueberry seeds and skin. Freeze for 8 hours or overnight. Remove from the freezer 30 minutes before serving. …………. Very Chocolate Ice Cream SUBMITTED BY: WENDYWR “This is a very rich, custard style ice cream with NO raw eggs!” Original recipe yield: 8 (1/2 cup) servings PREP TIME 10 Min COOK TIME 10 Min READY IN 4 Hrs 20 Min SERVINGS 8 INGREDIENTS 3/4 cup sugar 1 cup milk 1/4 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder 3 egg yolk, lightly beaten 2 ounces semisweet chocolate, chopped 2 cups heavy cream 1 teaspoon vanilla extract DIRECTIONS 1. Combine sugar, milk, salt, and cocoa powder in a saucepan over medium heat, stirring constantly. Bring to a simmer. Place the egg yolks into a small bowl. Gradually stir in about 1/2 cup of the hot liquid. and return to the saucepan. Heat until thickened, but do not boil. Remove from the heat, and stir in the chopped chocolate until chocolate is melted. Pour into a chilled bowl, and refrigerate for about two hours until cold, stirring occasionally. 2. When chocolate mixture has completely cooled, stir in the cream, and vanilla. Pour into an ice cream maker, and freeze according to manufacturer’s directions. …….. Cinnamon Ice Cream SUBMITTED BY: Elizabeth ” This is a delicious treat. It reminds of the cinnamon ice cream I used to get at Ray’s Ice Cream in Detroit!” Original recipe yield: 4 cups PREP TIME 5 Min COOK TIME 15 Min READY IN 1 Hr 50 Min SERVINGS 8 INGREDIENTS 1 cup white sugar 1 1/2 cups half-and-half cream 2 eggs, beaten 1 cup heavy cream 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 teaspoons ground cinnamon DIRECTIONS 1. In a saucepan over medium-low heat, stir together the sugar and half-and-half. When the mixture begins to simmer, remove from heat, and whisk half of the mixture into the eggs. Whisk quickly so that the eggs do not scramble. Pour the egg mixture back into the saucepan, and stir in the heavy cream. Continue cooking over medium-low heat, stirring constantly, until the mixture is thick enough to coat the back of a metal spoon. Remove from heat, and whisk in vanilla and cinnamon. Set aside to cool. 2. Pour cooled mixture into an ice cream maker, and freeze according to the manufacturer’s instructions. [this seems the preferred recipe; I’m not sure about so much vanilla, and still like a buttery note] ………. Cinnamon Ice Cream II SUBMITTED BY: Alexa “A rich custardy ice cream that is loaded with cinnamon. Perfect with peach cobbler, apple pie, or almost any of your favorite cakes.” Original recipe yield: 8 servings PREP TIME 20 Min READY IN 1 Hr 20 Min SERVINGS 8 INGREDIENTS 3/4 cup heavy cream 2 tablespoons sour cream 6 eggs 2/3 cup sugar 2 cups milk 1 tablespoon ground cinnamon 1 teaspoon vanilla extract DIRECTIONS List of 3 items 1. In a medium bowl, stir together the heavy cream and sour cream. Set aside in a warm place for about an hour to thicken. 2. In a separate bowl, beat eggs with sugar using an electric mixer until pale. Stir in the milk and cinnamon, and transfer to a saucepan. Bring to a simmer over medium-low heat. Cook, stirring constantly, until thick enough to coat the back of a metal spoon. Stir in the vanilla, and remove from the heat. Set aside to cool. 3. When the custard has cooled, stir in the sour cream mixture. Freeze in an ice cream maker according to the manufacturer’s instructions. [said to be very custardy–and you need something buttery, I think] …… Five Ingredient Ice Cream “It takes only 5 ingredients to make this fabulously creamy family pleaser! Before freezing, you can also add crushed sandwich cookies, nuts, chocolate chips, coconut or other favorites!” Original recipe yield: 3 pints PREP TIME 5 Min READY IN 4 Hrs SERVINGS 12 INGREDIENTS 1/2 cup cold milk 1 tablespoon vanilla extract 1 (14 ounce) can sweetened condensed milk 1/8 teaspoon salt 1 pint heavy cream DIRECTIONS 1. In a medium bowl, stir together cold milk, vanilla, condensed milk and salt. Set aside. 2. In a large bowl, beat heavy cream with an electric mixer until stiff peaks form. Fold milk mixture into whipped cream. 3. Pour into shallow 2 quart dish, cover and freeze for 4 hours, stirring once after 2 hours or when edges start to harden. Serve or store in an airtight container up to 10 days. …….. Granny’s Ice Cream SUBMITTED BY: Daphna “This is my Grandmother’s recipe for ice cream. It’s yummy, doesn’t require an ice cream maker, very simple and can be made into any flavour of ice cream on the planet.” Original recipe yield: 4 servings PREP TIME 15 Min READY IN 2 Hrs 15 Min SERVINGS 4 INGREDIENTS 4 egg whites 2/3 cup sour cream 1/2 cup white sugar vanilla DIRECTIONS 1. In a large glass or metal mixing bowl, beat egg whites until foamy. Gradually add white sugar and vanilla, continuing to beat until soft peaks form. Carefully fold in sour cream until well blended. Fold in any additional flavorings or goodies at this time. 2. Place the mixture into the freezer and stir every 30 minutes or so until frozen. This can be made without stirring, but the texture will be icy rather than creamy. If you have an ice cream maker, you can put the ice cream mixture in the maker, and follow the manufacturer’s instructions. list end Notes For coffee flavour: 2 teaspoons instant coffee. For rum raisin: Soak a handful of raisins in rum for a few minutes. These are just a few of my favorites. You can really go wild, adding chocolate, fruit, spices… whatever you like. It’s VERY versatile. [some say it’s too sour, some use vanilla yogurt, decrease egg whites, etc.] ……. Tart Lemon Sorbet SUBMITTED BY: Susan Garoutte “From Georgetown, Texas, field editor Susan Garoutte writes, ‘On hot summer days, nothing seems to satisfy like the tartness of lemons. This light, refreshing sorbet is one of my favorite ways to use that puckery fruit.'” Original recipe yield: 8 servings PREP TIME 10 Min COOK TIME 30 Min READY IN 40 Min SERVINGS 8 INGREDIENTS 3 cups water 1 1/2 cups sugar 1 1/2 cups lemon juice 1 tablespoon grated lemon peel DIRECTIONS 1. In a saucepan, bring water and sugar to a boil. Cook and stir until sugar is dissolved, about 5 minutes. Cool. Add the lemon juice and peel. 2. Pour into the cylinder of an ice cream freezer; freeze according to manufacturer’s directions. Allow to ripen in ice cream freezer or firm up in the refrigerator freezer for 2-4 hours before serving. Remove from the freezer 10 minutes before serving. ……… Lime Sherbet SUBMITTED BY: Julie Benkenstein “Priced at a cool 20¢ a bowl, this frozen treat is just as refreshing when it’s made with orange or raspberry gelatin. ‘My family especially enjoys it in the summer,’ relates Julie Bendenstein of Arcola, Indiana.” Original recipe yield: 8 servings PREP TIME 10 Min READY IN 10 Min SERVINGS 8 INGREDIENTS 1 (3 ounce) package lime gelatin or flavor of your choice 1 cup sugar 1 cup boiling water 2 tablespoons lemon juice 1 1/2 teaspoons grated lemon peel 4 cups cold milk DIRECTIONS 1. In a bowl, dissolve gelatin and sugar in boiling water. Add lemon juice and peel. Whisk in milk; mix well. Pour into an ungreased 9-in. square pan. Cover and freeze for 2 hours. 2. Transfer to a mixing bowl; beat for 2 minutes. Return to pan. Cover and freeze for 1 hour; stir. Freeze 1 hour longer or until firm. Let stand for 10 minutes before serving. ……. Creamy Lime Sherbet SUBMITTED BY: Mary Beth Dell Spiess “‘The lime flavor in this cool treat is perfect, and the pastel color is so pretty,’ says May Dell Spiess of Industry, Texas.” Original recipe yield: 16 servings PREP TIME 15 Min READY IN 15 Min SERVINGS 16 INGREDIENTS 1 (3 ounce) package lime gelatin 1 cup boiling water 1 1/4 cups sugar 1 (6 ounce) can frozen limeade concentrate, thawed Dash salt 1 quart milk 1 pint half-and-half cream 8 drops green food coloring (optional) DIRECTIONS 1. In a large bowl, dissolve gelatin in water. Add sugar, limeade and salt; mix until sugar is dissolved. Add remaining ingredients; blend well. Freeze in an ice cream freezer according to manufacturer’s directions. ………….. Grandma’s Orange Milk Sherbet [with pineapple] SUBMITTED BY: Marilynn Engelbrecht “My dear grandma made this sherbet for my birthday party in the 1930’s. She squeezed whole oranges to get the juice for it. I often double the recipe…it’s so refreshing on a hot summer day.” Original recipe yield: 16 servings PREP TIME 20 Min READY IN 20 Min SERVINGS 16 INGREDIENTS 1 1/2 cups orange juice 3/4 cup sugar 3 cups milk, scalded and cooled 1 (15 ounce) can crushed pineapple in natural juices DIRECTIONS 1. In a bowl, combine orange juice and sugar; blend thoroughly. Add milk and mix. Place in chilled ice cube trays without dividers or a shallow pan; freeze until mushy. Place mixture in a mixing bowl and whip. Add pineapple and juices. Return to trays or pan and freeze. ………… Peach Ice Cream SUBMITTED BY: Chris “A creamy, delicious Summertime treat! This recipe contains raw eggs. We recommend that pregnant women, young children, the elderly and the infirm do not consume raw eggs. ” Original recipe yield: 4 quarts PREP TIME 20 Min READY IN 1 Hr 5 Min SERVINGS 8 INGREDIENTS 1-1/2 eggs, beaten 3/4 cup and 2 tablespoons white sugar 2-1/2 fresh peaches, pitted and chopped 1 cup heavy cream 1/2 cup half-and-half cream 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract 1/8 teaspoon salt DIRECTIONS List of 2 items 1. In large bowl, mix together eggs and sugar until smooth; puree peaches in blender or food processor and stir 1.25 cups of puree into egg mixture. Stir in cream, half-and-half, vanilla and salt and mix well. 2. Pour mixture into freezer canister of ice cream maker and freeze according to manufacturer’s instructions. ……. Peppermint Ice Cream SUBMITTED BY: Berneice Metcalf “With flecks of peppermint candy, this ice cream is perfect for the holidays. –Berneice Metcalf, Leavenworth, Washington” Original recipe yield: 8 servings PREP TIME 15 Min COOK TIME 30 Min READY IN 45 Min SERVINGS 8 INGREDIENTS 4 egg yolks 1 1/2 cups half-and-half cream 3/4 cup sugar 1/4 teaspoon salt 2 cups whipping cream 4 1/2 teaspoons vanilla extract 1 cup crushed peppermint candies DIRECTIONS List of 2 items 1. In a heavy saucepan, whisk egg yolks, half-and-half, sugar and salt. Cook and stir over low heat until mixture reaches 160 degrees F and coats the back of a metal spoon. Remove from the heat. Place pan in a bowl of ice water; stir for 2 minutes. Stir in whipping cream and vanilla. Press plastic wrap onto surface of custard. Refrigerate for several hours or overnight. 2. Fill cylinder of ice cream freezer two-thirds full. (Refrigerate any remaining mixture until ready to freeze.) Freeze according to the manufacturer’s directions. Stir in peppermint candy. Allow to ripen in ice cream freezer or firm up in the refrigerator freeze for 2-4 hours before serving. [this seems to need work…] …….. Sherbets Hambleton Hall Orange: 3 c. strained fresh orange juice 1/3 c. sifted powdered sugar 1 T. orange-flavored liqueur tangerine or mandarin sections for garnish Combine first 3 ingredients in a bowl, and mix well. Chill at least 2 hours, covered. Freeze according to manufacturer’s directions. Garnish with fruit sections. ……………. Lime: 2 c. strained fresh lime juice 2.5 c. sifted powdered sugar lime sections for garnish Mix juice and sugar, chill 2 hours, covered. Freeze in ice cream maker. …….. Strawberry: 4 c. sliced berries 1/3 c. sifted powdered sugar 2 T. fresh lemon juice few raspberries, mint leaves for garnish In a blender or food processor, puree berries and press through fine sieve, pressing firmly on the solids. Combine with sugar and lemon juice, and chill covered at least 2 hours. Freeze in ice cream maker. –from Gourmet c. 1981? …….. Super Strawberry Sherbet SUBMITTED BY: Anne Dickens “This cool, smooth summertime treat is nice to have ready in the freezer for a special treat.” Original recipe yield: 32 servings PREP TIME 10 Min READY IN 10 Min SERVINGS 32 INGREDIENTS 4 quarts fresh strawberries, sliced 4 cups sugar 2 2/3 cups milk 2/3 cup orange juice 1/8 teaspoon ground cinnamon DIRECTIONS 1. Combine strawberries and sugar; let stand until juicy, about 1-1/2 hours. Mash or puree in a blender in several batches. Add milk, orange juice and cinnamon; blend well. Pour into the cylinder of an ice cream freezer and freeze according to manufacturer’s directions, or pour into ice cube trays without dividers. If preparing in trays, freeze about 3 hours, stirring two or three times. Vanilla Ice Cream III SUBMITTED BY: Nicki “A no-cook, no egg version of a popular favorite – made with sweetened condensed and evaporated milks, vanilla extract, sugar, milk and salt.” Original recipe yield: 1 gallon PREP TIME 45 Min READY IN 45 Min SERVINGS 32 INGREDIENTS 1 (14 ounce) can sweetened condensed milk 1 (12 fluid ounce) can evaporated milk 2 tablespoons vanilla extract 1 pinch salt 1 cup white sugar 6 cups milk DIRECTIONS 1. Combine condensed milk, evaporated milk, vanilla, salt and sugar in freezer canister of ice cream maker, and stir well. Add enough milk to bring mixture to the fill line on canister. Freeze according to manufacturer’s directions. [wonder about warming milk to dissolve sugar? some say too sweet…] ……. * Vanilla Ice Cream V SUBMITTED BY: Jackie “No-cook, no eggs, made with half-and-half and cream. Great, simple, classic vanilla ice cream!” Original recipe yield: 1 gallon PREP TIME 45 Min READY IN 45 Min SERVINGS 32 INGREDIENTS 2 quarts half-and-half cream * 1/2 pint heavy cream 1 1/2 cups white sugar 4 teaspoons vanilla extract 1 pinch salt DIRECTIONS 1. Combine half-and-half, cream, sugar, vanilla and salt in freezer container of ice cream maker. Freeze according to manufacturer’s instructions. * [scale it down, use milk, with higher percentage of cream–still need vanilla I like] ……. Vanilla Ice Cream VIII SUBMITTED BY: Margie Kirkman “Just milk, sugar and vanilla. This vanilla ice milk is so easy and tastes just like snow cream.” Original recipe yield: 1 gallon PREP TIME 45 Min READY IN 45 Min SERVINGS 32 INGREDIENTS 8 cups milk 2 cups white sugar 1 tablespoon vanilla extract DIRECTIONS List of 1 items 1. Combine milk, sugar and vanilla in freezer canister of ice cream maker. Freeze according to manufacturer’s instructions. [like its simplicity–requires excellent vanilla flavor, the rub-but I’ll try it; add pinch of salt]



Insecticidal Soap


1 cup vegetable oil

1 tablespoon liquid ivory soap

1 teaspoon garlic (optional)

1 teaspoon pepper, black or red (optional)


in a 2-cup lidded container, shake oil and liquid soap vigorously to mix well. add 2 teaspoons per 1 cup water to spray infested plants. apply out of direct sun; repeat every 3 days as needed. i’d guess you’d keep unused portion covered and chilled? and shake well before using again.


–from Bluestone Perennials newsletter july 2015





1 – 1/2 cups butter, softened

1 cup sugar

2 eggs

2 tablespoons vanilla [seems like a lot?]


3 cups sifted flour

1/2 teaspoon salt


jelly, jam, preserves of your choice, about 1/2 cup or so *


In a medium bowl, cream together butter, sugar and eggs till fluffy; stir in vanilla. Stir dry ingredients together, and add gradually to the creamed mixture; blend well. Chill dough at least 1 hour.


Drop dough by heaping teaspoons onto ungreased baking sheets. Make a dent in the center of each cookie, using the back of a spoon dipped in cold water. Place 1/4 teaspoon desired jam onto each cookie. Bake 10 to 12 minutes at 375 degrees. Cool on trays slightly before removing cookies to racks. Makes about 30 cookies.


–from Juanita Hippert, c. 1965


* You won’t need so much jam if you’re very tidy, but I always make a little mess with this. My mom mostly used apricot preserves or blackberry jam for these. Strawberry jam looks nice, though it’s a bit too sweet to my taste. I can’t think why any fruity jam or jelly you like wouldn’t work. – LLF



Jeannette’s Fudge


2 to 4 tablespoons cocoa powder *

3 cups sugar

1/2 teaspoon salt

1 – 1/2 cups milk


4 – 1/2 tablespoons butter

1 teaspoon vanilla


In a heavy 2-quart saucepan, combine cocoa, sugar and salt; add milk and blend. Over moderat heat, bring to a boil, stirring often, Cook to 232 degrees, to soft-ball stage. Remove the pan from heat, and drop in butter. Cool without stirring to lukewarm. Add vanilla and beat mixture until it thickens. Pour fudge into a buttered 9-inch square pan, smooth the top, and cut into squares.


–from Jeannette Barber, c. 1964


* My aunt Jeannette uses the lesser amount of cocoa, I tend to use a bit more. – LLF



Jiffy Chocolate Cake


1 cup sugar

1 – 1/2 cups flour

1 teaspoon baking soda

1 teaspoon salt

1/3 to 1/2 cup cocoa powder

1/2 cup cooking oil

1 – 1/2 cups buttermilk

2teaspoons vanilla

1 tablespoon red food coloring, optional

Sift together the dry ingredients. Add Remaining items and beat just to combine well Bake in 9-inch square pan about 30 minutes at 350 degrees, till cake tests done. Cool in pan, then frost top with Never-Fail Caramel Frosting (in separate recipe).



Leaveners Derived from the Latin “levare”, meaning “to raise”. The raising action that aerates dough and batter during mixing and/or baking provides greater volume and a distinct cell structure. Leaveners are classified as “aerating”, “chemical”, and “yeast”. * Aerating Leaveners Whole eggs, egg whites, butter, shortening, lard.- Work on the principle that a volatile substance will produce vapors that will be captured within food as it dries and sets during baking to give structure to baked goods. Whole eggs are beaten until light, egg whites until fluffy. During baking, the moisture in the eggs or whites expands as water vapor. At the same time, the heat of the oven firms the crumb structure. Butter and solid fats flavor as well as leaven. They are generally low in moisture, so they are worked into the dough to form thin, alternating layers of fat and dough. The moisture in the dough evaporates, producing water vapor which is trapped by the moisture-proof fat, resulting in a flakey, aerated pastry. * Chemical leaveners Chemical reactions occur between two or more ingredients, specifically between alkali and acid, to produce carbon dioxide. The reaction starts when liquid is added to the mixture. – Baking soda is used as a leavener when using acidic ingredients. Some examples of acid ingredients include: sour milk, buttermilk, sour cream, cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate), lemon juice and vinegar. – Baking powder is a combination of both alkaline (sodium bicarbonate) and acid (cream of tartar) ingredients. It was invented to insure consistent results in recipes. Most U.S. baking powders are double acting, i.e., they release gas during mixing and again during baking. The reaction is slower than that of old fashioned single action baking powders. …………… * Baking Powder Substitutions baking powder, single-acting – 2 tsp cream of tartar, 1 tsp baking soda, 1/2 tsp salt per cup of flour –Joy of Cooking baking powder, rising equivalent – for 1 tsp use 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 5/8 tsp cream of tartar –Joy of Cooking, other equivalents given baking powder, measuring equivalent – for each tsp, 1/2 tsp cream of tartar, 1/4 tsp baking soda, 1/4 tsp cornstarch or arrowroot. Mix only as much as you need per recipe since it will lose potency during storage. –Rodale’s Basic Natural Foods Cookbook baking powder, double-acting, SAS – for 1 tsp use 1-1/2 tsp phosphate or tartrate baking powder –Joy of Cooking self-rising flour – 1-1/2 tsp baking powder + 1/2 tsp salt per cup –Pillsbury flour bag). Note: Since the substitutions release gas immediately when mixed with the liquid of the recipe, they are single-acting. If you get it in the oven ASAP, you shouldn’t have much of a problem substituting for D.A. powder. ………………. * Yeast Leaveners The oldest known leavener, this one-celled microorganism divides and multiplies at a phenomenal rate when subjected to moisture and heat. Yeast remains dormant at temperatures below 50°F, and are killed at temperatures above 120°F. – Adding a small amount of sugar will enhance development, but too much – – sugar (greater than 6% of flour total) will stop yeast growth. – Salt inhibits yeast growth. – Whole milk is not good for proofing yeast, because milk fats coat yeast cells and inhibit cell growth. — from Fante’s site, c. 2007


We are living in a world today where lemonade is made from artificial flavors

and furniture polish is made from real lemons. ~Alfred E. Newman +++++++++++++++


Lemon-Cream Cheese Pound Cake


8 oz. cream cheese, at room temperature

1 cup butter, at room temperature

4 large eggs

1 – 1/2 cups sugar

2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice

1 – 1/2 teaspoons freshly-grated lemon zest

1 teaspoon vanilla


2 – 1/4 cups cake flour

2 teaspoons baking powder

1/4 teaspoon salt


In a large bowl with an electric mixer, cream together the cream cheese and butter. Gradually add the sugar, blending thoroughly. Add eggs one at a time, beating well after each. Add lemon juice, zest and vanilla and beat till smooth and well blended.


Sift together the dry ingredients and add gradually to the creamed mixture, combining well. Pour batter into a well-buttered and floured tube pan. Bake cake at 325 degrees for 60 to 75 minutes, or until cake tests done. Let cake cool in the pan for 10 minutes Turn it out onto a serving plate, and dust with powdered sugar. [This seems to say you do this while the cake is still warm, but I have my doubts. – LLF]


–from Gourmet, c. 1981




Lemon Delight Cake


1 box Lemon Supreme cake mix [do they still sell that? if not, I’m sure there’s an equivalent]

4 eggs

3/4 cup cooking oil

1 3-oz. package lemon jello

1 cup water


In a large bowl, combine all ingredients. Beat about 5 to 6 minutes, till smooth and well-blended. Pour batter into a well-greased 9 X 13-inchh cake pan. Bake about 30 to 35 minutes [?] at 350 degrees, until center springs back when pressed, and cake tests done. While the cake is still hot, poke holes about an inch apart all over the top with a skewer, and pour on Lemon Glaze (recipe is below). Cool the cake in the pan before serving. Serves at least 12.


Lemon Glaze


1/2 cup lemon juice [fresh is great, but even reconstituted works here]

2 cups sifted powdered sugar


Combine sugar with lemon juice and mix until smooth. Pour the glaze over hot Lemon Delight Cake (recipe above).


–This recipe was no doubt on cake mix boxes in the 1950’s. My mom got it from one of her workmates, but I don’t know who it was now. We’ve been making this since she went back to work before I started kindergarten in 1957! – LLF




Lemon Filling


3/4 cup sugar

2 tablespoons cornstarch

dash salt


3/4 cup cold water

2 beaten egg yolks

1 teaspoon grated lemon peel

3 tablespoons lemon juice

1 tablespoon butter


In a small saucepan, combine the dry ingredients; stir in water and blend until smooth. Add the egg yolks, lemon juice and peel; combine well. Cook, stirring constantly, over moderate heat until bubbly; cook 1 to 2 minutes more, then remove the pan from the heat. Stir in butter and cool thoroughly. Spread filling between layers of Yellow Citrus Cake (see separate recipe).

–from Better Homes and Gardens New Cookbook



Lemon-Pecan Bread


1 cup (2 sticks) butter, softened

2 cups granulated sugar

4 large eggs

3 cups all-purpose flour

2 teaspoons baking powder

1/2 teaspoon salt

1 cup milk

1 cup finely-chopped pecans

4 teaspoons freshly-grated lemon zest

for the glaze:

1/2 cup sugar

1/3 cup fresh lemon juice


In a large bowl, cream the butter and sugar; add eggs, one at a time, beating well after each addition. In a separate bowl, combine the dry ingredients, and gradually add them to the creamed mixture, alternating this with the milk, and blend well. Fold in the nuts and lemon zest.

Divide the batter between 2 9 by 5-inch loaf pans, and bake them at 350 degrees F. for 55 to 60 minutes, until a tester comes out clean. Prepare the glaze by combining the sugar and lemon juice. While breads are still hot, pour the glaze over the tops, and leave them in the pans for 10 minutes more before taking them out to cool completely on racks. Makes 2 loaves.

–from Taste of Home website, November 2018

Note: I half-remember a recipe something like this that I liked but lost years ago. I’m not sure I glazed those, and there was some brown sugar in that recipe, though that might make a heavier loaf. I might opt for a powdered sugar glaze to add once the breads are out of the pans; knocking out hot, sticky glazed bread sounds messy. – LLF



Lime-Tarragon Chicken


1/4 cup peanut oil

1/4 cup fresh lime juice, to taste

1/4 cup dry white wine

1 to 2 medium cloves garlic, mashed, to taste

1 tablespoon snipped chives

1 1/2 teaspoons minced fresh mint leaves

1/2 teaspoon dried tarragon, crumbled

1/2 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper

1/8 teaspoon dry mustard

1/4 teaspoon worcestershire sauce, to taste

1 3-pound chicken, cut in serving pieces


In a medium bowl, whisk together all ingredients except the chicken, to combine well; chill marinade for 1 hour to let the flavors blend. Place the chicken in a baking dish large enough to accommodate it in a single layer; pour in marinade, and make sure the chicken is coated with it on all sides. Cover the dish loosely, and chill for 3 hours, turning chicken pieces occasionally to keep them in contact with the marinade as much as possible.

Preheat oven broiler, and broil chicken5 inches from the heat, skin-side down, for 20 minutes, basting it with marinade every 5 minutes. Turn the chicken pieces over with tongs, and broil 10 minutes longer, basting twice with the marinade. Serves 3 to 4.

–from Gourmet, May 1986



Mexican Cornbread


1 cup self-rising flour *

1 cup self-rising cornmeal **

1/4 cup sugar

1/2 cup cooking oil

1 cup milk

1 egg, beaten lightly


1/4 to 1/2 medium onion, minced fine (or reconstituted dried onion)

1/2 medium green pepper, diced fine (or reconstituted dried pepper)

2 hot banana peppers, minced fine

1/2 cup creamed corn

1/4 to 1/2 cup grated cheddar cheese

In a medium bowl, combine flour, cornmeal and sugar. Add oil, milk and egg; beat to blend well, and stir in remaining ingredients. Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Pour batter into a well-buttered 9-inch square pan, and bake at least 35 minutes, until the sides start to pull away from the pan, and the center is set. Cool slightly before serving.

–from Helen M. Sempsrott, circa 1972

* I’m not sure many of us keep self-rising flour or cornmeal on hand these days, but you can make your own. For 1 cup self-rising flour, combine the following:

1 cup all-purpose flour

1/2 teaspoon salt

1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder

** To make 1 cup self-rising cornmeal, combine:

1 cup cornmeal, yellow or white

1/2 teaspoon salt

1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder



Mexican Cream Pudding


2 cups granulated sugar

2 teaspoons unflavored gelatin

2 cups milk

1/2 teaspoon vanilla

2 cups sour cream


In the top of a double-boiler, combine sugar, gelatin and milk. Heat over simmering water until the sugar and gelatin have dissolved, stirring constantly. Place the mixture in a bowl set over ice, and let it stand until thickened and almost set. Stir in the vanilla, and gently fold in the sour cream. Chill the pudding at least 6 hours, and serve with ripe berries.

–from Gourmet, c. 1985



Natural Cleaner Recipes



Almost Everything Cleaner Floor Cleaner

Mold and Mildew Cleaners

Window Cleaner


Almost Everything Cleaner

2 teaspoons borax 1 teaspoon washing soda (not baking soda) Hot water 4 tablespoons vinegar ½ teaspoon natural liquid soap (I use natural dish liquid or Dr. Bronner’s) ¼ teaspoon tea tree oil 8 drops rosemary oil 8 drops tangerine oil 8 drops lavender oil


Dissolve borax and washing soda (you’ll find both in the laundry boosters section of the supermarket) into 2 cups very hot water, strain the mixture through a very fine sieve, and funnel into a 1-quart spray bottle (or pour in slowly, leaving behind any undissolved powder). Add the rest of the ingredients (you can find essential oils at a health-food store) and shake to blend. Top off with more hot water and shake again.


This spray cuts through even the greasiest grime, and the essential oils help chase away germs and odors while leaving behind a delightful (and healthy) fragrance. The ingredients will cost you a bit more up front than buying a bottle of ready-made cleaner would, but in the long run they will make dozens of bottles of cleaner, costing far less per bottle.




Floor Cleaner

You can use either Almost Everything Cleaner or Window Cleaner to wash your floor, but plain vinegar and water will do most jobs just fine and won’t leave a haze on shiny surfaces. If you are spry, just scrub the floor as you would any other surface. If you prefer to stand comfortably while making your floor shine, get yourself a flat-pad-type mop (I have a Swiffer Sweeper I’ve been using for at least 15 years; it has four little grippers designed to hold the brand’s disposable pads, but they hold real cloth just fine) and a stack of terrycloth rectangles cut to fit it. If your sweeper came with an attached bottle, as mine did, you can fill the bottle with the cleaner of your choice, or simply use a spray bottle adjusted to release a loose stream.




Mold and Mildew Cleaners


If you need a little extra cleaning power for an area that has gotten moldy or mildewed, spray it generously with undiluted vinegar. Allow the vinegar to work for a few hours (overnight for bad cases) and then wipe the area dry. Use a fan to completely dry it. Follow up by determining why the area was damp enough to allow the problem to develop in the first place, and fix leaks and/or improve ventilation to prevent a repeat. Vinegar has been shown to kill 82 percent of mold strains, so chances are it will do the trick. If it doesn’t, get a bottle of pure grapefruit-seed extract, mix 20 drops into 2 cups of water, and spray the mix onto the area. In the unlikely event you still have problems, mix 2 teaspoons of tea tree oil into 2 cups of water and spray the area with that. Tea tree oil kills virtually all molds, but its distinctive smell will linger for a few days.




Window Cleaner


¼ cup vinegar ½ teaspoon natural liquid soap (optional; I use natural dish liquid or Dr. Bronner’s) 2 cups water


Put all ingredients in a spray bottle and shake to blend. If you want to, you can add a single drop of blue food coloring if you need to convince your family that it really is window cleaner.


Pour cleaner into a spray bottle and shake well before using. This may tend to run down and puddle at the bottom of windows more than commercial cleaners, so be ready to wipe it up.


–from Organic Gardening newsletter, April 2014



Never-Fail Caramel Frosting

1/4 cup butter

1/2 cup packed brown sugar

dash salt

2 tablespoons milk

1 to 1/2 cups powdered sugar

1/2 teaspoon vanilla

In a small saucepan, melt the butter over low heat. Add sugar and salt and mix well. Cook , stirring constantly, over medium heat till sugar dissolves and mixture comes to a boil. Add milk and bring back to the boil, still stirring. Then cook without stirring 1 minute more. Remove pan from heat and cool to near room temperature. Gradually add powdered sugar and vanilla, and beat until smooth. Will frost the top of a 9-inch square cake, such as Jiffy Chocolate Cake (in separate recipe).


No-Bake Cookies

Original Chocolate –

1/2 cup butter or margarine

2 cups granulated sugar

1/3 cup cocoa powder

dash salt

1/2 cup milk

1 teaspoon vanilla

1/4 to 1/2 cup peanut butter

2 to 3 cups quick-cooking oatmeal (uncooked)

Combine first 5 ingredients in a medium saucepan. Cook, stirring constantly, over moderate heat until butter melts and sugar is dissolved. Bring to a boil, and cook, still stirring, 1 to 2 minutes, then remove pan from heat. Stir in vanilla and peanut butter, and gradually add oatmeal. While still warm, drop cookies by heaping teaspoonfuls onto waxed paper or a well-greased baking sheet. Allow cookies to cool. Makes about 2 dozen.

–from Western Star Desserts cookbook, circa 1970

Peanut Butter Variation –

As above except:

no cocoa powder

use 2 cups brown sugar, no granulated sugar

use at least 3/4 cup peanut butter

–from LLF, circa 1981



No-Ham Navy Bean Soup 1.8 lb. dry uncooked navy beans 1 tsp. bbaking soda several changes of water in kettle 1 T. cooking oil pinch ground allspice 2 tsp. dried basil, crumbled 1-2 bay leaves 1 tsp. celery flakes pinch ground clove 2 tsp. cumin seeds 2-3 tsp. fennel seed 2 tsp. oregano leaves 1/2 tsp. ground black pepper 1/2 to 1 tsp. crushed red pepper flakes 1/2 tsp. rosemary leaves, crumbled 1/2 tsp. sage, crumbled 1 tsp. savory 1 tsp. thyme 2 c. diced tomatoes 1/2 c. celery tops, chopped 2-3 ribs celery, sliced 3-5 carrots, sliced 1/2 c. diced green pepper, or more 2-3 c. onion, sliced 2-3 cloves garlic, minced 1 T. dried parsley 1 T. cider vinegar 1-2 tsp. beef base or bouillon powder hickory seasoning, to taste salt, pepper, italian seasoning, marjoram to taste hot pepper sauce to taste 2 tsp. worcestershire sauce 1-2 large onions, diced 2-3 cloves garlic, minced fine In 6-quart kettle, cover beans with cold water; bring to boilover moderate heat; add baking soda and stir well. Remove kettle from heat. Let beans stand, covered, till they cool to room temperature, making sure there is plenty of water in the kettle, as beans will absorb more than you’d think. Change soaking water at least twice. Beans may soak several hours to overnight. If holding longer before cooking, keep covered and chilled. Rinse beans well in colander, and place back in kettle with about 2 quarts cold water. Add the second group of ingredients given above, and bring to a boil over moderate heat. Simmer beans 55-80 minutes, stirring occasionally, or until beans are tender. Add next group of ingredients, and cook till veggies are done, at least 20 minutes. If needed, add more water.


Stir in remaining ingredients, and cook, stirring occasionally, about 5-10 minutes more. Adjust seasoning to taste, and let beans stand 5-10 minutes before serving. Good served with barley cooked with veggies in beef broth. — LLF February 2004


If junk food is the devil, then a sweet orange is as scripture. ~Terri Guillemets ++++++++++++++++++++++++


Orange Marmalade


6 large florida oranges, about 4 pounds, peeled, seeded and halved, reserving peel

3 whole cloves

3 cups water

3 tablespoons orange pith (white part of the peel), minced

3 cups granulated cane sugar

peel from half the oranges, ? left in large pieces?

1/4 cup orange peel, cut in thin 1/2-inch long strips

2 tablespoons remaining peel, finely minced


Put a small glass plate in the freezer — for use in testing marmalade for doneness. Add all ingredients to a ? 6-quart pressure cooker and stir. Close the lid.

For a stovetop cooker; set to high pressure (15 psi.) and cook over high heat for 35 minutes total time after reaching pressure.

For an electric cooker; set to high pressure (10-12 psi.) and 45 minutes.

When done, remove from the heat or cancel the cooker, and allow the pressure to release on its own, or naturally. When all pressure is out, open the cooker.

Stovetop; bring to a boil over high heat. Cook on high heat for 5 minutes, then reduce to mediumm heat and simmer to your desired consistency, about 5 minutes.

Electric; Set to the simmer setting. Bring to a boil and cook for 10 minutes, or until jam reduces to your desired consistency. Check for doneness (see below) and if not done in 10 minutes, transfer jam to a large saucepan and boil for 10 minutes on the stove.

To test for doneness; remove the glass plate from the freezer and add a dollup of jam to it. After 1 minute, if the jam has settled in place, it’s done. If it’s runny, it needs more time to set. If needed, cook on high heat for about 10 minutes more.

When done, remove from the heat and discard the long orange peel before storing. Transfer to mason jars and allow jam to cool before closing. Keep chilled until ready to serve. Yields 8 cups marmalade, which keeps up to 4 months in the refrigerator.


–from Bren Herrera – Modern Pressure Cooking, February 2017


[I’m so lazy, I may try just processing the peel rather than all the mincing and scraping this seems to call for. – LLF]




Orange Pound Cake

Cake batter – 1 c. unsalted butter, at room temperature 2 c. sugar 4 extra-large eggs, at room temperature 1/3 c. grated orange zest – from 6 oranges 3 c. all-purpose flour 1/2 tsp. baking powder 1/2 tsp. baking soda 1 tsp. salt 1/4 c. freshly-squeezed orange juice, divided 3/4 c. buttermilk, at room temperature 1 tsp. vanilla

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Grease and flour 2 smallish loaf pans, lining the bottoms with parchment paper. Cream butter an 2 cups sugar with mixer till light and fluffy, for about 5 minutes. On medium speed, beat in the eggs one at a time, and add the orange zest.

In a large bowl, sift together flour, baking powder, soda and salt. In a separate bowl, combine 1/4 cup orange juice with the buttermilk and vanilla. Add the flour mixture to the batter, alternating with the buttermilk mixture, beginning and ending with flour. Divide the batter evenly between the loaf pans; smooth the tops and bake 45 to 60 minutes, until a cake tester comes out clean.


Orange Syrup – 1/2 c. sugar 1/2 c. fresh orange juice

While the cakes bake, cook 1/2 cup sugar with 1/2 cup orange juice in a small saucepan over low heat, until the sugar dissolves. When cakes are done, allow them to cool in their pans 10 minutes, then turn out to cooling racks set over a tray. Spoon the orange syrup over the cakes, and allow them to cool completely.


Glaze, for 1 loaf – 1 c. powdered sugar, sifted 1.5 T. fresh orange juice

To glaze, combine powdered sugar with 1.5 tablespoons orange juice, whisking until smooth. If necessary, add a few drops more juice to pour easily. Pour this over the cake, and allow the glaze to dry before wrapping for storage. If freezing, wait to add glaze until thawed, and you’re ready to use the cake.

–from Barefoot Contessa Family Style, July 2010



Orange-Cranberry Muffins


2 and 1/4 cups flour

1 and 1/2 cups sugar

1 tablespoon baking powder

1/4 teaspoon baking soda

1/2 teaspoon salt

pinch each of allspice and cinnamon

2 tablespoons dried orange peel

7/8 cup water, milk or orange juice

1/3 cup cooking oil

1 egg

2 tablespoons orange peel, less if using orange juice

1/2 to 1 cup chopped cranberries *


In a medium bowl, combine dry ingredients, stir well. In large mixing bowl, beat egg, blend in liquids and orange peel thoroughly; add cranberries. Quickly stir in the dry ingredients just to moisten, leaving some small lumps.

Fill prepared muffin cups or pans 2/3 full and bake in a 400 degree oven for 15 to 20 minutes, till tester comes out clean. Cool 3 to 5 minutes before removing from pans; serve warm. Yields 12 large muffins, more small ones. **

* use the lesser amount with dried cranberries, but you may need a bit more liquid; with ‘craisins’ you may want to decrease the sugar, especially if using orange juice

** naturally, larger muffins will need longer to bake, so watch closely to get the timing down.

–from LLF, February 2006


Food is an important part of a balanced diet. ~Fran Lebowitz,

++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++



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